**m o d e r n p h y s i c s**

**uccs pes 313 spring 2010**

updated: Tuesday, 19-Apr-2016 1:04 PM

**Essay:
The Renaissance of General Relativity**

Chapter 1: One Hundred Years Ago1.1 Classical Physics of the 1890s

•Mechanics•Electromagnetism

•Thermodynamics

1.2 The Kinetic Theory of GasesSpecial Processes of an Ideal Gas

1.3 Waves and Particles

1.4 Conservation Laws and Fundamental Forces

•Fundamental Forces

1.5 The Atomic Theory of Matter

1.6 Unresolved Questions of 1895 and New Horizons•On the Horizon

•articulate the four classical conservation laws

•explain Newton's laws and, where appropriate, include the mathematical version

•understand the laws of thermodynamics

•state the ideal gas equation

•show the relationship between the equipartition theorem and degrees of freedom

•describe the dual nature of light

•list the fundamental forces in order of relative strength

•explain what is meant by "the atomic theory of matter"

•briefly describe some of the problems facing physicists at end of the nineteenth century

Chapter 2: Special Theory of Relativity2.1 The Need for Ether

2.2 The Michelson-Morley Experiment

2.3 Einstein's Postulates

2.4 The Lorentz Transformation

2.5 Time Dilation and Length Contraction•Time Dilation

•Length Contraction

2.6 Addition of Velocities

2.7 Experimental Verification•Muon Decay

•Atomic Clock Measurement

•Velocity Addition

•Testing Lorentz Symmetry

2.8 Twin Paradox

2.9 Spacetime

2.10 Doppler Effect•Special Topic: Applications of the Doppler Effect

2.11 Relativistic Momentum

2.12 Relativistic Energy•Total Energy and Rest Energy

•Equivalence of Mass and Energy

•Relationship of Energy and Momentum

•Massless Particles

2.13 Computations in Modern Physics•Binding Energy

2.14 Electromagnetism and Relativity

•Practice with Lorentz Transformations

•articulate the principle of Galilean invariance

•define a "transformation"

•write down the Galilean transformations for two inertial systems

•explain the motivation behind and results of the Michelson-Morley experiment

•know Einstein's postulates: the Priciple Relativity and the constancy of the speed of light

•discuss the concept of simultaneity

•explain what a Lorentz transformation was trying to accomplish

•know the mathematical form of the Lorentz transformations

•explain in your own words what is meant by "proper time" and "proper length"

•state the mathematical equations for time dilation and length contraction

•calculate relativistic time dilations and length contractions

•calculate relativistic velocity addition

•cite some experimental verification of time dilation

•follow the twin paradox analysis in the text

•interpret Minkowski spacetime diagrams

•state the difference between lightlike, spacelike and timelike intervals with reference to Delta s2

•calculate relativistic Doppler shifts

•discuss relativisitic momentum and why the concept is necessary

•understand relativistic kinetic energy and how to use kinetic energy or momentum to express motion

•state the conservation of mass-energy

•write down the mathematical formula for the momentum-energy relation

Chapter 3: The Experimental Basis of Quantum Theory13.1 Discovery of the X-Ray and the Electron

3.2 Determination of Electron Charge

3.3 Line Spectra•Special Topic: The Discovery of Helium

3.4 Quantization

3.5 Blackbody Radiation3.6 Photoelectric Effect

•Experimental Results of Photoelectric Effect

•Classical Interpretation

•Einstein's Theory

•Quantum Interpretation

3.7 X-Ray Production

3.8 Compton Effect

3.9 Pair Production and Annihilation

•follow the discussion in the text on the discovery of x-rays

•derive the ratio of electron's charge to mass, e/m

•understand the interaction of forces in Milikan's oil drop experiment

•state the difference between Balmer's and Rydberg's equations

•use the equations of Balmer and Rydberg to determine wavelengths

•cite evidence of quantization in experiments and in nature

•note two important observations of a blackbody curve

•calculate wavlengths of maximum intensity using Wien's displacement law

•calculate power emitted if give the temperature using the Stefan-Boltzmann law

•show that Planck's radiation law avoids the ultraviolet catastrophe

•know five experimental facts about the photoelectric effect

•write down the equation for the energy quantum of a photon

•relate the Duane-Hunt rule to the conservation of energy

•explain the Compton effect and know the equation

•apply the rules governing pair production and annihilation

Chapter 4: Structure of the Atom4.1 The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford

4.2 Rutherford Scattering•Special Topic: Lord Rutherford of Nelson

4.3 The Classical Atomic Model

4.4 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom•The Correspondence Principle

4.5 Successes and Failures of the Bohr Model•Reduced Mass Correction

•Other Limitations

4.6 Characteristic X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number

4.7 Atomic Excitation by Electrons

•discuss how experimental results led to Rutherford's atomic model

•familiarize yourself with the assumptions Rutherford made in his scattering experiments

•know the relationship between the impact parameter b and the scattering angle Theta

•write down Rutherford's scattering equation and the four predictions it makes

•summarize the general assumptions of Bohr's model

•derive the equation for rn starting with the pricipal quantum number, n

•interpret and create energy level diagrams

•explain in your own words the correspondence principle

•derive the equivalence of Bohr and classical frequencies

•talk about the limitations of the Bohr model

•state the definition for ground state

•explain how the Franck-Hertz Experiment proved the quantization of atomic electron energy level

Chapter 5: Wave Properties of Matter5.1 X-Ray Scattering

5.2 De Broglie Waves•Special Topic: Cavendish Laboratory

•Bohr's Quantization Condition

5.3 Electron Scattering

5.4 Wave Motion

5.5 Waves or Particles?

5.6 Uncertainty Principle

5.7 Probability, Wave Functions, and the Copenhagen Interpretation•The Copenhagen Interpretation

5.8 Particle in a Box•Young's Single Slit Diffraction

Young's Double Slit Diffraction

•J.J. Thomson and the Cavendish Laboratory

•explain in simple terms how Laue proved the wave nature of x-rays

•state the two conditions for constructive interference, and the equation associated with each

•calculate wavelength of x-rays or inteplanar spacing of a crystal using Bragg's equation

•give the relation of a particle to a wavelength, known as the de Broglie wavelength

•derive the quantization of angular momentum using the de Broglie relation

•follow the discussion of Davisson and Germer's electron diffraction experiment

•analyze the general expression for a wave, Y(x,t) = A sin [2p/l (x - ut)], identifying the amplitude, wavelength and period

•define wave number k, angular frequency w, and phase constant, f

•know the important property of a wave packet

•understand and write down the equations for phase velocity, uph, and group velocity, ugr

•discuss the following experiments and their results: Young's double-slit and electron double-slit experiments

•state Bohr's principle of complementarity

•explain the solution of the wave-particle duality problem

•know what is meant by probability density, |Y|2

•perform the process of normalization on simple wave functions and explain why it is done

•discuss in your own words Heisenberg's uncertainty princple

•write down the equations for the uncertainty principle for momentum and displacement, and for energy and time

Chapter 6: The Quantum Theory6.1 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

•Normalization and Probability

•Properties of Valid Wave Functions•Time-Independent Schrödinger Wave Equation

6.2 Expectation Values

6.3 Infinite Square-Well Potential

6.4 Finite Square-Well Potential

6.5 Three-Dimensional Infinite-Potential Well

6.6 Simple Harmonic Oscillator

6.7 Barriers and Tunneling•Potential Barrier with E > V0

•Potential Barrier with E < V0

•Potential Well

•Alpha-Particle Decay

•Special Topic: Scanning Probe Microscopes

•explain in simple terms how Laue proved the wave nature of x-rays

•state the two conditions for constructive interference, and the equation associated with each

•calculate wavelength of x-rays or inteplanar spacing of a crystal using Bragg's equation

•give the relation of a particle to a wavelength, known as the de Broglie wavelength

•derive the quantization of angular momentum using the de Broglie relation

•follow the discussion of Davisson and Germer's electron diffraction experiment

•analyze the general expression for a wave, Y(x,t) = A sin [2p/l (x - ut)], identifying the amplitude, wavelength and period

•define wave number k, angular frequency w, and phase constant, f

•know the important property of a wave packet

•understand and write down the equations for phase velocity, uph, and group velocity, ugr

•discuss the following experiments and their results: Young's double-slit and electron double-slit experiments

•state Bohr's principle of complementarity

•explain the solution of the wave-particle duality problem

•know what is meant by probability density, |Y|2

•perform the process of normalization on simple wave functions and explain why it is done

•discuss in your own words Heisenberg's uncertainty princple

•write down the equations for the uncertainty principle for momentum and displacement, and for energy and time

Chapter 7: The Hydrogen Atom7.1 Application of the Schrödinger Equation to the Hydrogen Atom

7.2 Solution of the Schrödinger Equation for Hydrogen•Separation of Variables

•Solution of the Radial Equation

•Solution of the Angular and Azimuthal Equations

7.3 Quantum Numbers•Principal Quantum Number n

•Orbital Angular Momentum Number l

•Magnetic Quantum Number ml

7.4 Magnetic Effects on Atomic Spectra -- The Normal Zeeman Effect

7.5 Intrinsic Spin•Special Topic: Hydrogen and the 21-cm Line Transition

7.6 Energy Levels and Electron Probabilities•Selection Rules

•Probability Distribution Functions

Chapter 8: Many-Electron Atoms8.1 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

•Inert Gases

•Alkalis

•Alkaline Earths

•Halogens

•Transition Metals

•Lanthanides

•Actinides

•Special Topic: Rydberg Atoms

8.2 Total Angular Momentum•Single-Electron Atoms

•Many Electron Atoms

•LS Coupling

•jj Coupling

8.3 Anomalous Zeeman Effect

Chapter 9: Statistical Physics9.1 Historical Overview

9.2 Maxwell Velocity Distribution

9.3 Equipartition Theorem

9.4 Maxwell Speed Distribution

9.5 Classical and Quantum Statistics•Classical Distributions

•Quantum Distributions

9.6 Fermi-Dirac Statistics•Introduction to Fermi-Dirac Theory

•Classical Theory of Electrical Conduction

•Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction

9.7 Bose-Einstein Statistics•Blackbody Radiation

•Liquid Helium

•Special Topic: Superfluid 3He

•Bose-Einstein Condensation in Gases

Chapter 10: Molecules and Solids10.1 Molecular Bonding and Spectra

•Molecular Bonds

•Rotational States

•Vibrational States

•Vibration and Rotation Combined

10.2 Stimulated Emission and Lasers•Scientific Applications of Lasers

•Holography

•Quantum Entanglement, Teleportation, and Information

•Other Laser Applications

10.3 Structural Properties of Solids

10.4 Thermal and Magnetic Properties of Solids•Thermal Expansion

•Thermal Conductivity

•Magnetic Properties

•Diamagnetism

•Paramagnetism

•Ferromagnetism

•Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism

10.5 Superconductivity•The Search for a Higher Tc

•Special Topic: Low-Temperature Methods

•Superconducting Fullerenes

10.6 Applications of Superconductivity

•Josephson Junctions

•Maglev

•Generation and Transmission of Electricity

•Other Scientific and Medical Applications

Superconductivity Modern Physics Serway Chapter 12 .pdf

Chapter 11: Semiconductor Theory and Devices11.1 Band Theory of Solids

•Kronig-Penney Model

•Band Theory and Conductivity

11.2 Semiconductor Theory•Special Topic: The Quantum Hall Effect

•Thermoelectric Effect

11.3 Semiconductor Devices•Diodes

•Bridge Rectifiers

•Zener Diodes

•Light-Emitting Diodes

•Photovoltaic Cells

•Transistors

•Field Effect Transistors

•Schottky Barriers

•Semiconductor Lasers

•Integrated Circuits

11.4 Nanotechnology•Carbon Nanotubes

•Nanoscale Electronics

•Nanotechnology and the Life Sciences

•Information Science

Chapter 12: The Atomic Nucleus12.1 Discovery of the Neutron

12.2 Nuclear Properties•Sizes and Shapes of Nuclei

•Intrinsic Spin

•Intrinsic Magnetic Moment

12.3 The Deuteron

12.4 Nuclear Forces

12.5 Nuclear Stability•Nuclear Models

12.6 Radioactive Decay

12.7 Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay•Alpha Decay

•Beta Decay

•Special Topic: Neutrino Detection

•Gamma Decay

12.8 Radioactive Nuclides•Time Dating Using Lead Isotopes

•Radioactive Carbon Dating

•Special Topic: The Formation and Age of the Earth

Chapter 13: Nuclear Interactions and Applications13.1 Nuclear Reactions

•Cross Sections

13.2 Reaction Kinematics

13.3 Reaction Mechanisms•The Compound Nucleus

•Direct Reactions

13.4 Fission•Induced Fission

•Thermal Neutron Fission

•Chain Reactions

13.5 Fission Reactors•Nuclear Reactor Problems

•Breeder Reactors

•Special Topic: Early Fission Reactors

13.6 Fusion•Formation of Elements

•Nuclear Fusion on Earth

•Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions

13.7 Special Applications•Medicine

•Archaeology

•Art

•Crime Detection

•Mining and Oil

•Materials

•Small Power Systems

•Special Topic: The Search for New Elements

•New Elements

Chapter 14: Elementary Particles14.1 Early Discoveries

•The Positron

•Yukawa's Meson

14.2 The Fundamental Interactions

14.3 Classification of Elementary Particles•Leptons

•Hadrons

•Particles and Lifetimes

14.4 Conservation Laws and Symmetries•Baryon Conservation

•Lepton Conservation

•Strangeness

•Symmetries

14.5 Quarks•Quark Description of Particles

•Color

•Confinement

14.6 The Families of Matter

14.7 Beyond the Standard Model•Neutrino Oscillations

•Matter-Antimatter

•Grand Unifying Theories

14.8 Accelerators•Special Topic: Experimental Ingenuity

•Synchrotrons

•Linear Accelerators

•Fixed-Target Accelerators

•Colliders

Chapter 15: General Relativity15.1 Tenets of General Relativity

•Principle of Equivalence

•Spacetime Curvature

15.2 Tests of General Relativity•Bending of Light

•Gravitational Redshift

•Perihelion Shift of Mercury

•Light Retardation

15.3 Gravitational Waves

15.4 Black Holes

15.5 Frame Dragging•Special Topic: Gravity Probe B

Orbits in Strongly Curved Spacetime

Observations of spacetime bending light

•know what situations general relativity applies to

•state the Principle of Equivalence

•explain why astronauts orbiting around the earth feel a degree of equivalence

•discuss how light is affected by a gravitational field

•define gravitational redshift and be familiar with other tests of general relativity

•cite some sources of gravitational radiation that could in theory be detected on earth

•describe the process that leads to the formation of a black hole

•define Schwarzschild radius, singularity and event horizon

•calculate the radius of a black hole for a given mass

•state some reasons why it is so difficult to detect a black hole

•talk about frame dragging and the evidence that exists for it

Chapter 16: Cosmology -- The Beginning and the End

Cosmology Modern Physics Serway 3e Ch. 16 .pdf16.1 Evidence of the Big Bang

•Hubble's Measurements

•Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

•Nucleosynthesis

16.2 The Big Bang

16.3 Stellar Evolution•The Ultimate Fate of Stars

•Special Topic: Planck's Time, Length, and Mass

16.4 Astronomical Objects•Active Galactic Nuclei and Quasars

•Gamma Ray Astrophysics

•Novae and Supernovae

16.5 Problems with the Big Bang•The Inflationary Universe

•The Lingering Problems

16.6 The Age of the Universe•Age of Chemical Elements

•Age of Astronomical Elements

•Cosmological Determinations

•Universe Age Conclusion

16.7 The Future•The Demise of the Sun

•Where Is the Missing Mass?

•Special Topic: Future of Space Telescopes

•The Future of the Universe

•Are Other Earths Out There?

•Pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope

•cite the three pieces of evidence for the Big Bang

•state Hubble's law mathematically and explain it

•discuss why the observation of cosmic microwave background radiation supports the Big Bang theory

•explain why scientists measure the relative abundances of the elements and how this supports the Big Bang theory

•draw a timeline of the events at the beginning of the universe from the moment of the Big Bang (t = 0 seconds) to the present (1017 seconds)

•describe the process of the formation of a star

•follow the example in the book that estimates the mean temperature of the sun

•explain what determines the final state of a star after hydrogen fuel is exhausted

•define neutron star, pulsar and white dwarf

•be familiar with the following astronomical objects: active galactic nuclei, quasars, novae and supernovae

•briefly explain the areas of study of gamma ray astrophysicists and neutrino astronomers

•cite the three problems with the Big Bang theory and if a solution exists for any of them

•explain the missing mass problem

•understand the example in the text that determines the critical density of the universe

•follow the derivation in the text of the deceleration parameter q and understand its significance

•for the flat, closed, open and open empty universe, be familiar with the respective deceleration parameter, average density and age of the universe

Web Appendix 1: Calculation of the Number of Modes for Waves in a Cavity

Web Appendix 2: Planck's Derivation of E

Web Appendix: Overlap Integrals of Atomic Wavefunctions

Web Essay 1: The Invention of the Laser

Web Essay 2: Photovoltaic Conversion