San Juan Mountains, Colo.



GES4310 Principles of Geomorphology




Available for download in Canvas day of class


Lab 1, Basics

Lab 2, In-class presentations

Lab 3, At RRCOS

Lab 4, In-class, GE

Lab 5, In-class, GIS

Semester Schedule / Required Readings

Jan. 28: Course Introduction, Fundamentals of Geomorphology, Climatic and Topographic Diversity, Lab One

  • Topic #1: Welcome, introductions, syllabus
  • Topic #2: Geomorphology and other key terms defined
  • Topic #3: Why study geomorphology? Careers.
  • Topic #4: Geomorphology as a systems science: elements, signals, feedbacks, time
  • Topic #5: Together, climatic and topographic diversity bring geomorphology to life (and why especially true in Colorado)
  • Topic #6: Semester summary in slides
  • Topic #7: Hand out Lab One (hard-copy)
  • Due at start of class next week:
    1. Lab One (turn in as hard-copy)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. Ritter et al. (your textbook), Ch. 1
    2. Phillips 2003 (sources of non-linearity)
    3. Hewitt 2006 (catastrophic events, cascade effect)
    4. Savigear 1952 (ergodic theorem application)

Feb. 4: Foundations of Geomorphology

  • Topic #1: Driving and resisting forces
  • Topic #2: Theories of landform evolution and the rise of modern process geomorphology
  • Topic #3: The Principle of Uniformitarianism and other problems faced by earth scientists: time, convergence, divergence, sensitivity... Ponder this: "If the reproducibility of experiments is a requirement of scientific research, then does earth science even exist?" (Schumm, 1991)
  • Topic #4: Journal articles: thresholds and non-linear behavior, cascade effect and linked processes, ergodicity, isostacy
  • Readings due before Sept. 19:
    1. Ritter et al. (your textbook), Part of Ch. 4 (stop at "Physical Properties of Unconsolidated Debris")
    2. Turkington et al. 2005 (introduction to weathering and landscape evolution)

Feb. 11: Rock Weathering - Physical Processes

  • Topic #1: Rock weathering (wxing) basics
  • Topic #2: Physical rock wxing
  • Topic #3: Earth decay - Video: Life After People (2008)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. Villa et al. 1995 (fissuresols)
    2. Dorn 2004 (case hardening/core softening)
    3. McBride and Picard 2000 (tafoni)
    4. Turkington and Phillips 2004 (cavernous wxing)
    5. Paradise and Yin 1993 (wxing pits)
    6. McFadden et al. 2005 (exposed rocks)

Feb. 18: Rock Weathering - Chemical Processes, Weathering Forms, Lab Two

  • Topic #1: Chemical wxing processes (hydrolosis / ion exchange, carbonation, oxidation)
  • Topic #2: Rock wxing forms: calcrete, gnamma pits, sphereoidal weathering, tafoni, honeycombs, joints and joint faces, case hardened surfaces, (stopped here today) rock coatings (silica glaze, desert varnish)
  • Topic #3: Student presentations of readings: fissuresols, case hardening / core softening (tafoni and other cavernous features), wxing / gnamma pits, spheroidal weathering (this is Lab Two)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. Cruikshank and Aydin 1994 (natural arch formation)
    2. Fitzner et al. 2004 (building/monument wxing)
    3. Hancock and Skinner 2009 (rock coatings)
    4. Inkpen et al. 2001 (wxing form mapping)
    5. Laity and Malin 1985 (ground water sapping)
    6. Pollard and Aydin 1988 (jointing in rocks)

Feb. 25: More Rock Weathering Forms, Red Rock Canyon Open Space Themes

  • Topic #1: Finish rock coatings (silica glaze, desert varnish) from last week
  • Topic #2: Wxing forms from readings, plus salt diapirs (domes) and their relationship to joints in rocks and arches, and theater-headed valleys
  • Topic #3: Building and momunent wxing, wxing form mapping and GIS
  • Topic #4: Field trip-themed research / student mini-presentations (e.g., Ute Pass / Rampart Range faults, Mesa Gravels, etc.)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. Barry 2008 (general microclimate and topoclimate)
    2. Littmann 2008 (arid land microclimate and topoclimate)
    3. Dobrowski et al. 2009 (mountain topoclimate)
    4. Western Water Assessment 2015 (intermountain West climate and precipitation map) -- URL, not PDF, see readings list for link


  • Topic #1: Topographic variability helps identify and isolate process
  • Topic #2: Define climatic geomorphology / overview of climatic geomorphology
  • Topic #3: Basics: Adiabatic and orographic processes, mountain/valley thermal circulation patterns
  • Topic #4: Climate scales that drive landsurface evolution (continental > state-to-mountain range > county-level > topoclimate > microclimate)
  • Readings due before next class (April 1):
    1. Ritter et al. (your textbook) Ch. 6
    2. Foster 2010 (megafloods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville) -- URL, not PDF, see readings list for link
    3. Larimer County, Colo. 2010 (Big Thompson flood of 1976) -- URL, not PDF, see readings list for link
    4. Kiver and Warren, 2011 (Ice Age floods in the Pacific Northwest)

Mar. 11: Test One

  • Take Test One twice
  • Readings due before Mar. 18:
    1. Recall readings that were due Mar. 4 (Barry 2008, Littmann 2008, etc.)

Mar. 18: Red Rock Canyon Open Space (RRCOS) during-class (1:30 - 3:45 pm) field trip, Lab Three

  • Topic #1: Field trip around RRCOS (~ 2.0 mi. loop): Some observations of the RRCOS landscape.
  • Topic #2: Begin Lab Three: i) Rock Weathering, ii) Geomorphic Results of Weather and Climate, and iii) Design Your Own Field Trip Stop (handed out in field at RRCOS)
  • Readings due before next class (April 1):
    1. Ritter et al. (your textbook) Ch. 6
    2. Foster 2010 (megafloods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville)
    3. Larimer County, Colo. 2010 (Big Thompson flood of 1976)
    4. Kiver and Warren, 2011 (Ice Age floods in the Pacific Northwest)

Mar. 25: Spring Break

Apr. 1: Fluvial, 1/2

  • Topic #1: Turn in Lab Three
  • Topic #2: Review Test One
  • Topic #3: Fluvial processes
  • Topic #4: Mega-floods: Colorado floods of 1965, 1976, and 2013; Pleistocene Lake Missoula / Lake Bonneville floods.
  • Readings due before next class:
    1. Reading: Ritter et al. (your textbook) Ch. 7
    2. (Re)familiarize yourself with Google Earth (we are using Google Earth in class the next two weeks)

Apr. 8: Fluvial, 2/2

  • Topic #1: Recap of Lab Three (a look at YOUR suggested field trip stops)
  • Topic #2: Fluvial landforms
  • Topic #3: Fluvial processes / landforms in-class exercise (USGS / Google Earth)
  • Readings due before next class:
    1. Bellian et al. 2005 (terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) of rock outcrops)

Apr. 15: NO CLASS

Apr. 22: Meet in EPC 239 (this is in the library). PAPER DUE, Lab Four

  • Topic #1: This Saturday's field trip logistics
  • Topic #2: Lecture: Technologies in geomorphology: Maps / instruments
  • Topic #3: On PCs: ArcMap DEM / DRG / spatial analysis demo looking at Moab, UT area
  • Topic #4: Google Earth Pro / ArcMap GIS geomorphological explorations (this is Lab Four)
  • Due before next classs
    1. Lab Four (Upload into Canvas by Sunday, 4/28, 5pm)
    2. Ritter et al. (your textbook) Ch. 4 (Start at "Physical Properties of Uncon...", stop at "Slope Profiles")
    3. Ritter et al. (your textbook) Ch. 8 (just a couple of pages - read the section titled 'The Resisting Environment')
    4. Parise et al. 2003 (Slumgullion Earthflow, Colorado)
    5. White et al. 2015 (West Salt Creek Landslide, Colorado)

Apr. 27 (SATURDAY), all-day field trip, Picketwire Canyon, SE Colorado

Apr. 29: LiDAR Demo, Mass Wasting, Desert Pavement, Ventifacts, Biological Soil Crusts

  • Topic #1: LiDAR theory and practice (TLS demo)
  • Topic #2: Mass wasting mechanics
  • Topic #3: Desert pavement and ventifacts
  • Topic #4: Biological soil crusts
  • Topic #5: Group mini-presentations (mass wasting / some events)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. Ritter et al. (your textbook), Ch. 9
    2. Ritter et al. (your textbook), Ch. 10
    3. Guido et al. 2007 (San Juan Mtn. ice cap / valley glacier)

May 6: PAPER RETURNED; Glaciers, Glaciations; Rock Glaciers

  • Topic #1: Glaciers
  • Topic #2: Bull Lake and Pinedale glacial remnants across Colorado
  • Topic #3: One remarkable San Juan Mtn. valley glacier
  • Topic #4: Rock glaciers
  • Topic #5: Hand out review for Test Two (this is Lab Five)
  • Readings due before class next week:
    1. none - study for test two!

May. 13, TEST TWO, 12:40 - 2:40 pm, REVISED PAPER DUE (optional)

Required Readings (PDFs in Canvas)

Barry, R. 2008. Mountain Weather and Climate. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY. pp. 401-407.
Barsch, D, and N. Caine. 1984. The nature of mountain geomorphology. Mountain Research and Development, 4 (4):287-298.
Bellian, J. C. Kerans, and D. Jennette. 2005. Digital outcrop models: Applications of terrestrial scanning lidar technology in stratigraphic modelling. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 75 (2):166-176.
Blair, R., T. Casey, W. Romme, and R. Ellis. 1996. The Western San Juan Mountains: Their Geology, Ecology and Human History. University of Colorado Press, Boulder, CO., Ch. 1 "Origin of Landscapes" pp. 3 - 17.
Blair, R., and M. Gillam. 2011. Eastern San Juan Mountains: Their Geology, Ecology and Human History. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, CO., Ch. 4 "Geomorphic History of the San Juan Mountains" pp. 61-78.
Brantley, S., R. Lowenstern, J. Christiansen, R. Smith, R. Heasler, H. Waite, and C. Wicks. 2004. Tracking Changes in Yellowstone's Restless Volcanic System, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 100-03.
Cruikshank, K., and A. Aydin. 1994. Role of fracture localization in arch formation, Arches National Park, Utah, GSA Bull. 106 (7): 879-91.
Dobrowski, S., J. Abatzoglou, J. Greenberg, and S. Schladow. 2009. How much influence does landscape-scale physiography have on air temperature in a mountain environment?  Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 149 (10):1751-8.
Dorn, R. 2004. Case hardening, in Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, ed. A.S. Goudie, Routledge: London, 118-119.
Fitzner, B., K. Heinrichs, and D. La Bouchardiere.  2004. The Bangudae Petroglyph in Ulsan, Korea: Studies on weathering damage and risk prognosis. Environmental Geology 46:504-26.
Foster, T. 2010. A web site related to catastrophic floods from Glacial
Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville here:
Gochis, D., Schumacher, R., Friedrich, K. Doesken, N., Kelsch, M., Sun, J., Ikeda, K., Lindsey, D., Wood, A., Dolan, B., Matrosov, S., Newman, A., Mahoney, K., Rutledge, S., Johnson, R., Kucera, P., Kennedy, P., Sempere-Torres, D., Steiner, M., Roberts, R., Wilson, J., Yu, W., Chandrasekar, V., Rasmussen, R., Anderson, A., and B. Brown. The Great Colorado Flood of September 2013. 2015. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96(9): 1461-1487.
Godt, J.W., Coe, J.A., Kean, J.W., Baum, R.L., Jones, E.S., Harp, E.L., Staley, D.M., and Barnhart, W.D. 2014. Landslides in the northern Colorado Front Range caused by rainfall, September 11–13, 2013. US Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2013–3114, 6 p.
Guido, Z., J. Dylan and R. Anderson. 2007. Pacing the post-Last Glacial Maximum demise of the Animas Valley glacier and the San Juan Mountain ice cap, Colorado. Geology 35(8): 739-742.
Hancock, P., and B. Skinner. 2000. Rock Coatings. The Oxford Companion to the Earth. Oxford University Press. 
Hewitt, K. 2006. Disturbance regime landscapes: mountain drainage systems interrupted by large rockslides. Progress in Physical Geography, 30:365-93.
Huber, T. 1982. The geomorphology of subalpine snow avalanche runout zones: San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 7:109-116.
Inkpen, R., P. Collier, and D. Fontana. 2001.  Mapping decay: Integrating scales of weathering within a GIS. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 26, 885-900.
Kiver, E. P., and S. Warren. 2011. Ice Age floods in the Pacific Northwest. Association of American Geographers (AAG) Newsletter, January. 46(1).
Laity, J. and M. Malin. 1985. Sapping processes and the development of theater-headed valley networks on the Colorado Plateau. GSA Bulletin 96 (2): 203-17.
Larimer County, Colo. 2010. A web site related to the catastrophic Big Thompson, Colorado flood 7/31/1976 here:
Littmann, T. 2008. Topoclimate and microclimate. InArid Dune Ecosystems. Springer. pp. 175-182.
Mahoney, K., F. Martin Ralph, Klaus Wolter, Nolan Doesken, Michael Dettinger, Daniel Gottas, Timothy Coleman, and Allen White. 2015. Climatology of extreme daily precipitation in Colorado and its diverse spatial and seasonal variability. Journal of Hydrometeorology 16:2, 781-792.
McBride, E., and M. Picard. 2000. Origin and development of tafoni in Tunnel Spring Tuff, Crystal Peak, Utah, USA. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25: 869-79.
Paradise, T., and Z. Yin. 1993. Granite weathering pit characteristics and topography, Stone Mountain, Georgia, Physical Geography 14:68-81.
Parise, M., J. Coe, W. Savage, and D. Varnes. 2003, The Slumgullion Landslide (south-western Colorado, USA): Investigation and monitoring. International workshop on occurrence and mechanisms of flows in natural slopes and earthfills, IW-Flows 2003, Sorrento, May 14-16, 2003.
Phillips, J. 2003. Sources of nonlinearity and complexity in geomorphic systems. Progress in Physical Geography 27(1): 1-23.
Pollard, D. and A. Aydin. 1988. Progress in understanding jointing over the past century. GSA Bulletin100: 1181-204.
Ritter D., R. Kochel, and J. Miller. 2002.  Process Geomorphology 4th Edition. McGraw Hill, New York.
Savigear, R. 1952. Some observations on slope development in South Wales. Transactions, Institute of British Geographers 18:31-51.
Turkington A., J. Phillips, and S. Campbell. 2005. Weathering and landscape evolution. Geomorphology Special Issue 67(1-2): 1-6.
Turkington A., and J. Phillips. 2004. Cavernous weathering, dynamical instability and self-organization.Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 29:665-675.
Western Water Assessment. 2015. Intermountain West Climate Page (narrative and map).
Villa, N., Dorn, R. I., and Clark, J., 1995, Fine material in rock fractures: aeolian dust or weathering? in: Desert Aeolian Processes, V. Tchakerian, ed., Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 219-231.
White, J., Morgan, M., and Berry, K. 2015. The West Salt Creek Landslide: A catastrophic rockslide and rock/debirs avalanche in Mesa County, Colorado. Colorado Geological Survey / Colorado School of Mines. Bulletin 55.

Supporting Readings

Athearn, F. 1985. Land of Contrast: A History of Southeast Colorado. BLM Cultural Resources Series (Colorado: No. 17).
Bach, A. 2013. Mountain climate, In Mountain Geography: Physical and Human Dimensions, eds. L. Price, M. Price, B. Byers, D. Friend, and T. Kohler, pp. 41-84. University of California Press.
Barsch, D. 1988. Rock glaciers, In Advances in Periglacial Geomorphology, ed. M. Clark, pp. 69-90. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Barsch, D., and N. Caine. 1984. The nature of mountain geomorphology. Mountain Research and Development 4 (4):287-98.
Blair, R., T. Casey, W. Romme, and R. Ellis. 1996. The Western San Juan Mountains: Their Geology, Ecology and Human History. University of Colorado Press, Boulder, CO.
Campbell, I. 1973. Controls of canyon and meander forms by jointing. Area 5 (4):291-96.
Campbell, S. 1999. Chemical weathering associated with tafoni at Papago Park, Central Arizona. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24:271-78.
Caine, N. 1995. Snowpack influences on geomorphic processes in Green Lakes Valley, Colorado Front Range. The Geographical Journal 1:55-68.
Colorado State University (CSU). 2014. Colorado Flood 2013 Storm Page.
Dexter, L., and K. Birkeland. 2013. Snow, ice, avalanches, and glaciers. In Mountain Geography: Physical and Human Dimensions, eds. L. Price, M. Price, B. Byers, D. Friend, and T. Kohler, pp. 85-126. University of California Press.
Gordon, S. 2005. Effect of environmental factors on the chemical weathering of plagioclase in Hawaiian basalt. Physical Geography 26 (1):69-84.
Gordon, S., and R. Dorn. 2005. In situ case-hardened surface erosion. Geomorphology 67:97-113.
Guglielmin, M., N. Cannone, A. Strini, and A. Lewkowicz. 2005. Biotic and abiotic processes on granite weathering landforms in a cryotic environment, Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 16 (1):69-85.
Hall, K., and A. Hall. 1996. Weathering by wetting and drying: some experimental results. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21:365-76.
Hall, K., J. Arocena, J. Boelhouwers, and Z. Liping. 2005. The influence of aspect on the biological weathering of granites: observations from the Kunlun Mountains, China. Geomorphology 67(1-2): 171-188.
Hales, T., and J. Roering. 2007. Climate controls on frost cracking and implications for the evolution of bedrock landscapes. Journal of Geophysical Research 112: F2.
Harris, A., E. Tuttle, and S. Tuttle. 1997. Geology of National Parks, 5th Ed. (Ch. 6: Arches National Park). Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA.
Hoerlé, S. 2006. Rock temperatures as an indicator of weathering processes affecting rock art. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 313:383.
Inkpen, R., P. Collier, and D. Fontana. 2000. Close-range photogrammetric analysis of rock surfaces. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, N.F. Supplement Band 120:67-81.
Janke, J. 2013. Mountain landforms and geomorphic processes. In Mountain Geography: Physical and Human Dimensions, eds. L. Price, M. Price, B. Byers, D. Friend, and T. Kohler, pp. 127-166. University of California Press.
McCarroll, D. and A. Nesje. 1996. Rock surface roughness as an indicator of degree of rock surface weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 21:963-77.
McCutchan, M.H., D.G. Fox, and R.W. Furman. 1982. San Antonio Mountain Experiment (SAMEX). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 63:1123-1131.
McFadden, L, Eppes, M., Gillespie, A. and B.Hallet. 2005. Physical weathering in arid landscapes due to diurnal variation in the direction of solar heating. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117 (1-2): 161-173.
McGreevy, J. 1985. Thermal properties as controls on rock surface temperature maxima, and possible implications for rock weathering. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 10 (2):125-36.
Moon, S., C. Page Chamberlain, K. Blisniuk, N. Levine, D H. Rood, and G. Hilley. 2011. Climate control of denudation in the deglaciated landscape of the Washington Cascades. Nature Geoscience 4: 469-473.
Mottershead, D. 2000. Identification and mapping of rock weathering surface forms and features.Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, N.F. Supplement Band 120:5-22.
Mottershead, D., A. Gorbushina, G. Lucas, and J. Wright.  2003.  The influence of marine salts, aspect and microbes in the weathering of sandstone in two historic structures. Building and Environment 38 (10): 1193-204.
Noe, D. 1997. Heaving-bedrock hazards, mitigation, and land-use policy; Front Range Piedmont, Colorado. Environmental Geosciences 4(2)48-57.
Paradise, T. 1997. Disparate sandstone weathering beneath lichens, Red Mountain, Arizona. Geografiska Annaler, Series A, Physical Geography 79(3):177-84.
Paradise, T. 2002. Sandstone weathering and aspect in Petra, Jordan. Zeitscrift für Geomorphologie46:1-17.
Petuskey, W., D. Richardson, and D. Dolske. 1995.  Aspects of the deterioration of sandstone masonryin Anasazi dwelling ruins at Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, USA. Science of the Total Environment 167:145-59.
Phillips, J.D. 1999. Earth Surface Systems. Complexity, Order, and Scale. Oxford, UK. Basil Blackwell.
Pike, R., I. Evans, and T. Hengl. 2008. Geomorphometry: A Brief Guide. In: Geomorphometry - Concepts, Software, Applications, Hengl, T. and Hannes I. Reuter (eds.), Series Developments in Soil Science vol. 33, Elsevier, pp. 3-33.
Pope, G. 2001. Weathering impacts on petroglyph engravings and rock panels.  In American Indian Rock Art, eds. S. Freers and A. Woddy, 97-105.  Tucson, Arizona: American Rock Art Research Association.
Pope, G., R. Dorn, and J. Dixon. 1995. A new conceptual model for understanding geographical variations in weathering.  Annals of the Association of American Geographers 85(1) 38-64.
Robinson, D., and R. Williams. 1981. Weathering of sandstone by the combined action of frost and salt.  Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 6:1-9.
Roe, G., Montgomery, D., and B. Hallet. 2003. Orographic precipitation and the relief of mountain ranges. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108: (B6, 2315).
Roth, E. 1965. Temperature and water content as factors in desert weathering. Flora, 160:527-61.
Schumm, S. 1991. To Interpret the Earth. Ten Ways to be Wrong. Cambridge, New York, Port Chester, Melbourne, Sydney. Cambridge University Press.
Shugar, D., J. Clague, J. Best, C. Schoof, M. Willis, L. Copland, and G. Roe. 2017. River piracy and drainage basin reorganization led by climate-driven glacier retreat. Nature Geoscience 10:70-375.
Smith, B., R. Magee, and W. Whalley. 1994. Breakdown patterns of quartz sandstone in a polluted urban environment, Belfast, Northern Ireland. In Rock Weathering and Landform Evolution, eds.  D.Robinson and R. Williams, 131-50. Chichester, England: Wiley.
Theoulakis, P. and A. Moropoulou. 1997. Microstructural and mechanical parameters determining the susceptibility of porous building stones to salt decay. Construction and Building Materials 11 (1): 65-71.
Thorne, C. 1978. The geomorphic role of snow. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 68(3) 414-25.
Tarolli, P. 2014. High-resolution topography for understanding Earth surface processes: Opportunities and challenges. Geomorphology 216:295-312.
Tratebas, A., N. Cerveny, and R. Dorn. 2004. The effects of fire on rock art: Microscopic evidence reveals the importance of case-hardened surfaces. Physical Geography 254:313-33.
Turkington, A., and T. Paradise. 2005. Sandstone weathering: A century of research and innovation.Geomorphology 67:229-53.
Viles, H. 2001. Scale issues in weathering studies. Geomorphology 41:61-72. 
Vogt, B. 2014. Visualizing summertime lightning patterns on Colorado Fourteeners. The Professional Geographer 66(1): 41-57.
Vogt, B., and Edsall, R. 2010. Terrestrial laser scanning and exploratory spatial data analysis for the mapping of weathering forms on rock art panels. Geocarto International 1:1-21.
Vogt, Brandon, and Hodanish, S. 2016. A geographical analysis of warm season lightning / landscape interactions across Colorado,
USA. Applied Geography 75: 93-105.
Vogt, B., and Hodanish, S. 2014. A high-resolution lightning map of the state of Colorado. Monthly Weather Review 142:2353-60.
Warke, P., J. Curran, A. Turkington, and B. Smith. 2003. Condition assessment for building stone conservation: a staging system approach. Building and Environment 38:1113-23.
Whalley, W., and A. Turkington. 2001. Weathering and geomorphology - special issue ofGeomorphologyGeomorphology 41:1-3.
Williams, R., and D. Robinson.  1981.  Weathering of sandstone by the combined action of frost and salt.  Earth Science Processes and Landforms 6 (1): 1-9.
Williams, R., and D. Robinson.  2000.  Effects of aspect on weathering: Anomalous behaviour of sandstone gravestones in southeast England. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 252:135-44.
Young, A. 1987. Salt as an agent in the development of cavernous weathering. Geology 15:962-66.

Contact Brandon

  • 719.255.5146
  • 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80918